The Physics of Sports

A Sports Administration Site  

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 Code Number :   11A10.50?

Disclaimer:

Disclaimer

These demonstrations are provided only for illustrative use by persons affiliated with The University of Iowa and only under the direction of a trained instructor or physicist.  The University of Iowa is not responsible for demonstrations performed by those using their own equipment or who choose to use this reference material for their own purpose.  The demonstrations included here are within the public domain and can be found in materials contained in libraries, bookstores, and through electronic sources.  Performing all or any portion of any of these demonstrations, with or without revisions not depicted here entails inherent risks.  These risks include, without limitation, bodily injury (and possibly death), including risks to health that may be temporary or permanent and that may exacerbate a pre-existing medical condition; and property loss or damage.  Anyone performing any part of these demonstrations, even with revisions, knowingly and voluntarily assumes all risks associated with them.

Condition :   Good   
Principle :   Physiology
Area of Study :  Physiology, Biology  
Equipment :   Stop Watches, Meter tapes,
Procedure :   Sports and the Human Body Examples, equipment, and websites.
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 Web Links

"Archery"

Physics of Archery sites.

http://www.stortford-archers.org.uk/medieval.htm

http://www.student.utwente.nl/~sagi/artikel/

 

"Baseball"

You Can Understand the Physics of Baseball! - Activities

http://phys.csuchico.edu/baseball/

Physics and Acoustics of Baseball & Softball Bats by Daniel A. Russell, Science & Mathematics Department, Kettering University.

http://www.kettering.edu/~drussell/bats-new/ball-bat-0.html

Physics of Sport on the Web

www.physics.usyd.edu.au/~cross/baseball.html

www.kettering.edu/~drussell/bats.html

The Physics of Baseball

http://www.npl.uiuc.edu/~a-nathan/pob

 

"Basketball"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.scire.com/sds/sdsmenu.html

http://www.fearofphysics.com/Proj/proj.html

http://www.geocities.com/thesciencefiles/physicsof/basketball.html

 

"Billiards"

http://billiards.colostate.edu

"Cricket"

Physics of Sport on the Web

www.scienceinafrica.co.za/2002/december/bounce.htm

www.phys.unsw.edu.au/~jw/cricket.html

http://www.tickey.co.za/cricket/maths%20and%20physics%20of%20cricket.pdf

 

"Cycling"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.analyticcycling.com/.

http://www.helmets.org/henderso.htm

http://www.canecreek.com/site/product/wheels/info/proof.html

http://www.princeton.edu/~asmits/Bicycle_web/bicycle_aero.html

http://links.math.rpi.edu/devmodules/bicycle/index.html

Inspired Bicycles - Danny MacAskill April 2009

 

"Dance"

Physics in Sport on the Web

http://physics.dickinson.edu/~podance/podance_homepage.html

http://web.hep.uiuc.edu/home/g-gollin/dance/dance_physics.html

 

"Football"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://physics.unl.edu/outreach/football.html

http://www.howstuffworks.com/question225.htm

"Golf"

Physics of Sport on the Web

kingfish.coastal.edu/physics/projects/2000_Spring/golf/

sportsillustrated.cnn.com/augusta/cool_stuff/physics/index.html

www.nationalsciencecenter.org/FortDiscovery/RiverFrontPlazaBalcony/demos/parabola/ParabolicGolfApplet.htm

Golf Impacts - Slow Motion

Funny Golf Tips from J.C. Anderson

Golf Ball hitting Steel in Slow Motion

"Gymnastics"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.angelfire.com/sc2/physics212/

http://www.geocities.com/bright_effect/physics.html

 

"Javelin"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://webphysics.iupui.edu/152/152f02/152Basics/projectiles/projectiles.html

 

"Kayaking"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.oneoceankayaks.com/kayakpro/kayakgrid.htm

http://www.seakayak.ws/kayak/kayak.nsf/NavigationList/NT0001DD22

http://home.messiah.edu/~barrett/mpg/mpg.html

http://www.thinkquest.org/library/site_sum.html?tname=3042&url=3042/java/linear_demo.html

 

"Mountains"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.physicscentral.com/people/people-02-9.html

http://motionmountain.dse.nl/welcome.html

http://physics.k12albemarle.org/teacher/Planet/home.html

http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/Marvin%20Casanova/design.htm

http://www.bomberonline.com/articles/physics.cfm

http://www.miniclip.com/snowboardingxs.htm

http://modena.intergate.ca/business/kas/skydive/faq.htm

"Paintball"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://home.comcast.net/~dyrgcmn/pball/trajectory.html

http://www.warpig.com/paintball/technical/gasses/co2dynamics.shtml

 

"Pole Vaulting"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.aip.org/png/html/polevault.html

http://www.physics.carleton.ca/~watson/1000_level/ph14e/ph14e/mfbar2.htm

http://www.uvi.edu/Physics/SCI3xxWeb/Electrical/magnetism.html

"Rugby"

Physics of Sport on the Web

www.npl.co.uk/time/msf.html

www.citizenphil.co.uk/rugby/index.html

news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/rugby_union/rugby_world_cup/kicking_kings/default.stm

 

"Soccer"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.albertson.edu/physics/PHY271_F01/Projects-2002/whit,%20caleb,%20bill%20project/whit,%20caleb,%20bill%20project.htm

http://physicsweb.org/article/world/11/6/8#world-11-6-8-1

http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Horizon/8596/ssoccer.html

http://www.oceansiderevolution.com/EINSTEIN.HTM

http://www.denmarkemb.org/bohr.html

 

"Skating"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://btc.montana.edu/olympics/physbio/biomechanics/cam-intro.html

 

"Skydiving"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.canadianarrow.com/spacediving.htm

http://departments.weber.edu/physics/amiri/director/dcrfiles/airResistance/ChuteTwoS.dcr

http://physics.k12albemarle.org/teacher/projectile/terminal/home.html

 

"Surfing"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www1.tpgi.com.au/users/mpaine/thesis.html

http://www.blackmagic.com/ses/surf/papers/physicsgrm.html

http://www.blackmagic.com/ses/surf/papers/mywaveproject.html

 

"Tennis"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.physicscentral.com/news/news-01-10.html

http://users.wpi.edu/~tanguyen/tennis.html

http://www.engin.swarthmore.edu/~kpao/first.html#tennis

 

http://physics.usyd.edu.au/~cross/tennis.html

http://www.tennisplayer.net

http://www.itftennis.com/technical

http://www.tennisserver.com/set

 

 

"Weights"

Physics of Sport on the Web

http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/becker2.htm

http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/Peter_Broady/Pages/Homepage.htm

http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/

 

 

   References
"General"

Elliot Mylott et al, "Kinesthetic Activities for the Classroom", TPT, Vol. 52, # 9, Dec. 2014, p. 525.

John Eric Goff, "A Fun General Education Physics Course: Physics of Sports", TPT, Vol. 42, # 5, May 2004, p. 280.

Don Ellis, "Practical Physics", TPT, Vol. 42, # 6, Sept. 2004,  p. 324.

Ole Anton Haugland, "Physics Measurements for Sports", TPT, Vol. 39, # 6, Sept. 2001, p. 350.

Priscilla Laws and Hans Pfister, "Using Digital Video Analysis in Introductory Mechanics Projects", TPT, Vol. 36, # 5, May 1998, p. 282.

Walter C. Connolly, "The Physics of Sport Activities", TPT, Vol. 16, # 6, Sept. 1978, p. 392.

Angelo Armenti, Jr., "Physics and Sport: A New Course for Non-Science Majors", TPT, Vol. 12, # 6, Sept.  1974, p. 349.

 

Cliff Frohlich, "Resource Letter PS-2: Physics of Sports", AJP, Vol. 79, # 6, June 2011, p. 565.

Daniel J. Graham, David V. Schacht, "Simple Estimate of the Human Metabolic Rate", AJP, Vol. 69, # 6, p. 723, June 2001.

 

Gary Williams, "Exercising Your Mind: Discover The Physics of Sport On The Web", Physics Education, Vol. 39, # 4, July 2004, p. 356.

 

50 Fun Experiments for the Mad Scientist in You, "Righty Lefty",  National Geographic Kids, p.  52.

Charles Vivian, "On the Smoke Trail", Science Experiments & Amusements For Children, p. 94.

Charles Vivian, "Rust Uses Up Oxygen", Science Experiments & Amusements For Children, p. 66.

"Archery" 

Rod Cross, "Why Bows Get Stiffer And Racquets Get Softer When The Strings Are Added", AJP, Vol. 69, # 8, p. 907, Aug. 2001.

Jearl Walker, "1.131, Archer's Paradox", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 65.

"Ballet"

Jearl Walker, "1.100, Ballet", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 50.

Robert Kunzig, "The Physics of Ballet", Physical Sciences, Spring 2001, p. 190.

"Baseball"

David Kagan, Alan M. Nathan, "Simplified Models for the Drag Coefficient of a Pitched Baseball", TPT, Vol. 52, # 5, May 2014, p. 278.

David Kagan, "Stolen Base Physics", TPT, Vol. 51, # 5, May 2013, p. 269.

Brian C. Thomas and Matthew Quick, "Getting the Swing of Surface Gravity", TPT, Vol. 50, #4, Apr. 2012, p. 232.

David Kagan, "Demonstration of the "Trampoline Effect" in Aluminum Bats", TPT, Vol. 49, # 6, Sept. 2011, p. 398.

David Kagan, "What is the Best Launch Angle To Hit a Home Run?", TPT, Vol. 48, # 4, April 2010, p. 250.

David Kagan, "The Anatomy of a Pitch: Doing Physics with PITCHf/x Data", TPT, Vol. 47, # 7, Oct. 2009, p. 412.

David Kagan, David Atkinson, "The Coefficient of Restitution of Baseballs as a Function of Relative Humidity", TPT, Vol. 42, # 6, Sept. 2004,  p. 330.

Herbert Ringel, "Graphing Henry Aaron's Home-Run Output", TPT, Vol. 40, # 4, Apr. 2002, p. 251.

Arthur Eisenkraft, "The Softball Trajectory: An Outdoor Lab", TPT, Vol. 23, # 5, May. 1985, p. 300 - 301.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Trajectory of a Fly Ball", TPT, Vol. 23, # 1, Jan. 1985, p. 20 - 23.

H. L. Armstrong, "Comments on the Flight of Baseball", TPT, Vol. 6, # 8, Nov. 1968, p. 433.

J.D. Patterson, "Home Run Hitting", TPT, Vol. 5, # 4, April 1967, p. 157.

David Kagan and Alan M. Nathan, "Statcast and the Baseball Trajectory Calculator", TPT, Vol. 55, March 2017, p. 134-136.

David J. Starling, "Tie Goes to the Runner: The Physics and Psychology of a Close Play", TPT, Vol. 55, April 2017, p. 200-203.

 

Alan M. Nathan et al., "Corked Bats, Juiced Balls, and Humidors: The Physics of Cheating in Baseball", AJP, Vol. 79, # 6, June 2011, p. 575.

Rod Cross, "Mechanics of Swinging a Bat", AJP, Vol. 77, # 1, p. 36, Jan. 2009.

Edmund R. Meyer, John L. Bohn, "Influence of a Humidor on the Aerodynamics of Baseballs", AJP, Vol. 76, # 11, Nov. 2008, p. 1015.

M. K. McBeath, A. M. Nathan, A. T. Bahill, D. G. Baldwin, "Paradoxical Pop-Ups: Why Are They Difficult to Catch?", AJP, Vol. 76, # 8, Aug. 2008, p. 723.

Alan M. Nathan, "The Effect of Spin on the Flight of a Baseball", AJP, Vol. 76, # 2, p. 119, Feb. 2008.

R. G. Tobin, "On the Potential of a Chemical Bonds: Possible Effects of Steroids on Home Run Production in Baseball", AJP, Vol. 46, # 1, January 2008, p. 15.

Rod Cross, Alan M. Nathan, "Scattering of a Baseball by a Bat", AJP, Vol. 74, # 10, Oct. 2006, p. 896.

G. S. Sawicki, M. Hubbard, W. J. Stronge, "Erratum: Reply to Comment on Gregory S. Sawicki, Mont Hubbard, William J. Stronge, 'How to Hit Home Runs: Optimum Baseball Bat Swing Parameters for Maximum Range Trajectories', AJP, Vol. 71, # 11, Nov. 2003, p. 1152", AJP, Vol. 73, # 4, April, 2005, p. 365.

Rod Cross, "A Double Pendulum Swing Experiment: In Search of a Better Bat", AJP, Vol. 73, # 4, April 2005, p. 330.

G. S. Sawicki, M. Hubbard, W. J. Stronge, "Reply to Comment on Gregory S. Sawicki, Mont Hubbard, William J. Stronge, 'How to Hit Home Runs: Optimum Baseball Bat Swing Parameters for Maximum Range Trajectories', AJP, Vol. 71, # 11, Nov. 2003, p. 1152", AJP, Vol. 73, # 2, Feb. 2005, p. 185.

Robert K. Adair, "Comment on Gregory S. Sawicki, Mont Hubbard, William J. Stronge, "How to Hit Home Runs: Optimum Baseball Bat Swing Parameters for Maximum Range Trajectories', AJP, Vol. 71, # 11, Nov. 2003, p. 1152", AJP, Vol. 73, # 2, Feb. 2005, p. 184

Rod Cross, "Center of Percussion of Hand-Held Implements", AJP, Vol. 72, # 5, May 2004, p. 622.

Rod Cross, "Physics of Overarm Throwing", AJP, Vol. 72, # 3, Mar. 2004, p. 305.

Gregory S. Sawicki, Mont Hubbard, William J. Stronge, "How to Hit Home Runs: Optimum Baseball Bat Swing Parameters for Maximum Range Trajectories", AJP, Vol. 71, # 11, Nov. 2003, p. 1152.

Alan M. Nathan, "Characterizing the Performance of Baseballs", AJP, Vol. 71, # 2, Feb. 2003, p. 134.

Rod Cross, "Response to "Comment on 'The Sweet Spot of a Baseball Bat' " ", AJP, Vol. 69, # 2, p. 231, Feb. 2001.

Robert K. Adair, "Comment on "The Sweet Spot of a Baseball Bat" ", AJP, Vol. 69, # 2, p. 229, Feb. 2001.

Alan M. Nathan, "Dynamics of the Baseball-Bat Collision",  AJP, Vol. 68, # 11, p. 979, Nov. 2000. 

Robert G. Watts, Eric Sawyer, "Aerodynamics of a Knuckleball", AJP, Vol. 43, # 11, Nov. 1975, p. 960.

Lyman J. Briggs, "Effect of Spin and Speed on the Lateral Deflection (curve) of a Baseball; and the Magnus Effect for Smooth Spheres", AJP, 1959, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

 

Cameron Johnson, "Baseball for the Mathematically Curious", Popular Mechanics, April 2016, p. 14.

Junnie Kwon, "Flat-Seamed Baseball", Popular Science, April 2015, p. 41.

Corey Kluber, "How to Throw a Curve Ball", Popular Mechanics, April 2015, p. 67.

Wayne Coffey, "Anatomy of a Knuckleball", Popular Mechanics, May 2013, p. 78.

Harry Sawyers, "The Next Big Hit", Popular Science, May 2012, p. 25.

Jearl Walker, "2.16, Baseball Aerodynamics", The Flying Circus of Physics, Ed. 2, p. 89.

Robert K. Adair, "The Physics of Baseball", Physics Today, May 1995, p. 26.

Jearl Walker, "1.23, Hitting a Baseball", The Flying Circus of Physics, Ed. 2, p. 10.

Davin Coburn, "Anatomy of a Swing", Popular Mechanics, June 2007, p. 100.

Peter J.Brancazio, "How Do You Throw A Curve Ball?", 1987-88 Cenco Catalog

Matt Goulet, "A Beautiful Things", Popular Mechanics, p.55.

"The New Way to Watch Baseball", Popular Mechanics, Nov. 2015, p. 86.

Chili Davis, "Bat Like a Lumberjack" Popular Science, Nov. 2016, p. 62.

"Basketball"

"Figuring Physics", TPT, Vol. 53, # 1, Jan. 2015, p. 2015.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Comments on 'Kinematics of the Free Throw in Basketball'", AJP, Vol. 50, # 10, Oct. 1982, p. 944.

A. Tan, K. Taylor, "Reply to 'Comments on 'Kinematics of the Free Throw in Basketball'", AJP, Vol. 50, # 10, Oct. 1982, p. 945.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Erratum: "Physics of Basketball"", AJP, Vol. 50, # 6, June 1982, p. 567.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Physics of Basketball", AJP, 1980, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

 

Jearl Walker, "1.33, Basketball Shots", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 15.

Jearl Walker, "1.34, Records in Free Throws", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 16.

Jearl Walker, "1.35, Hang Time in Basketball and Ballet", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 16.

"How it Works: The Jump Shot", Popular Science, p. 64, August 2008.

Peter J.Brancazio, "Why Do Good Jumpers Seem to Hang in the Air?", 1990 Cenco Catalog

"Bicycles"

Paul Janssen, Ewald Janssens, "Bicycle Freewheeling with Air Drag as a Physics Experiment", TPT, Vol. 53, # 1, Jan. 2015, p. 25.

Randy Knight, "The Bicyclist's Paradox", TPT, Vol. 46, # 5, May 2008, p. 275.

William M. Wehrbein, "Wheelies and Headers, or How to Keep Both Bicycle Wheels on the Ground", TPT, Vol. 42, # 1, Jan. 2004, p. 27.

William M. Wehrbein, "Collecting and Recording Bicycle Speed Data by CBL", TPT, Vol. 41, # 4, Apr. 2003, p. 243.

Manfred Euler, Gert Braune, and Soenke Schaal, "Collecting Kinematics Data Over Long Time Intervals", TPT, Vol.  38, # 7, Oct. 2000, p. 434. 

Chris Waltham, "Power Requirements for Rollerblading and Bicycling", TPT, Vol. 37, # 6, Sept. 1999, p. 379.

Gilbert H. Ward, "Can a West Wind Impede a Cyclist's Northward Motion?", TPT, Vol. 37, # 6, Sept. 1999, p. 352.

Robert G. Hunt, "Bicycles in the Physics Lab", TPT, Vol. 27, # 3, Mar. 1989, p. 160.

J.D. Nightingale, "Which Way Will the Bike Move?", TPT, Vol. 31, # 4, Apr. 1993, p. 244.

Garold T. Hageseth, "The Physics of an Exercise Bike", TPT, Vol. 26, # 4, Apr. 1988, p. 226.

Brynjolf Dokken, "More on Bicycle Physics", H. Richard Crane, TPT, Vol. 22, # 2, Feb. 1984, p. 138.

Thomas Greenslade, Jr., "The Author Replies", H. Richard Crane, TPT, Vol. 22, # 3, Mar. 1984, p. 138.

Thomas B. Greenslade, Jr., "More Bicycle Physics", TPT, Vol. 21, # 6, Sept. 1983, p. 360.

William M. Wehrbein, "Collecting and Recording Bicycle Speed Data by CBL", TPT, Vol. 41, #4, April 2003, p. 243.

 

Benjamin Lee Hannas,  John Eric Goff, "Model of the 2003 Tour de France", AJP, Vol. 72, # 5, May 2004, p. 575.

J. Fajans, "Steering in Bicycles and Motorcycles",  AJP, Vol. 68, # 7, p. 654, July 2000. 

J. Lowell, H. D. McKell, "The Stability of Bicycles", AJP, Vol. 50, # 12, Dec. 1982, p. 1106.

 

Chester R. Kyle, "Reduction of Wind Resistance and Power Output of Racing Cyclists and Runners Traveling in Groups", AJP, 1979, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

Pat Murphy, Ellen Macaulay, and the staff of the Exploratorium, Exploratopia, p. 153.

Mark Anders, "World's Fastest Bike", Popular Science, July 2012, p. 11.

Alyson Sheppard, "Balancing Act", Popular Mechanics, Aug. 2011, p. 14.

Ed Sobey, Woody Sobey, "Bicycle", The Way Toys Work, p. 15.

Diane Talbot, "Materials Make The Wheels of Bike Design Go Round", Physics Education, Vol. 39, # 4, July 2004, p. 329.

David E.H. Jones, "The Stability of The Bicycle", Physics Today, April 1970, p. 34, and reprinted in Physics Today, p. 51, Sept. 2006.

Jearl Walker, "1.80, Bicycles and Motorcycles", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 41.

Jearl Walker, "1.81, Motorcycle Long Jumps", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 41.

Peter J.Brancazio, "How Do You Balance a Bicycle?", 1987- 88 Cenco Catalog.

"Bobsled"

Jearl Walker, "1.155, Bobsled in a Curve", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 72.

"Bowling"

Tim Burgess, "The Physics of Bowling", TPT, Vol. 34, # 5, May 1996, p. 316.  

 

Cliff Frohlich, "What Makes Bowling Balls Hook?", AJP, Vol. 72, # 9, Sept. 2004, p. 1170.

Huston, Passerello, Winget, Sears, "On the Dynamics of a Weighted Bowling Ball", AJP, 1979, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

D. C. Hopkins and J. D. Patterson, "Bowling Frames: Paths of a Bowling Ball", AJP, Vol. 45, # 3, March 1977, p. 263.

 

"Bowl A Hook", Popular Mechanics, April 2015, p. 69.

"Boxing"

Jearl Walker, "1.46, Boxing", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 23.

"Bull Riding"

Jearl Walker, "1.92, Bull Riding", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 46.

"Bungee Jumping"

Hubert Biezeveld, "The Bungee Jumper: A Comparison of Predicted and Measured Values", TPT, Vol. 41, # 4, Apr. 2003, p. 238.

David Kagan and Alan Kott, "The Greater- than-g Acceleration of a Bungee Jumper", TPT, Vol. 34, # 6, Sept. 1996, p. 368.

Paul G. Menz, "The Physics of Bungee Jumping", TPT, Vol. 31, # 8, Nov. 1993, p. 483.

Robert J. Beichner, "Theory and Experiment", TPT, Vol. 31, # 9, Dec. 1993, p. 519.

Paul G. Menz, "Correction", TPT, Vol. 32, # 2, Nov. 1994, p. 68.

Hubert Biezeveld, "The Bungee Jumper: A Comparison of Predicted and Measured Values", TPT, Vol. 41, #4, April 2003, p. 238.

 

Paul Horton, "Elastic Experiment is Licensed to Thrill", Physics Education, Vol. 39, # 4, July 2004, p. 326.

"Cricket"

Jearl Walker, "2.17, Cricket Aerodynamics", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 89.

"Curling"

K. S. Armstrong, "The Physics of Curling", TPT, Vol. 19, # 7, Oct. 1971, p. 384.

 

A. Raymond Penner, "The Physics of Sliding Cylinders and Curling Rocks", AJP, Vol. 69, # 3, p. 332, March 2001. 

 

Jearl Walker, "1.90, Curling", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 45.

"Dance"

Toni Feder, "Dance for Physics", Physics Today, May 2005, p. 34.

"Diving"

Marcel Aguilella-Arzo, Andtoio Alcaraz, and Vincente M. Aguilella, "Heat Loss and Hypothermia in Free Diving: Estimation of Survival Time Under Water", AJP, Vol. 71, # 4, April 2003, p. 333.

Cliff Frohlich, "Do Springboard Divers Violate Angular Momentum Conservation?", AJP, 1979, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers. 

 

Jearl Walker, "1.134, Diving from a Springboard", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 65.

"Field Hockey"

Jearl Walker, "1.78, A Controversial Goal", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 40.

"Firefighting"

Robert A. Egler, "The Physics of Firefighting", TPT, Vol. 28, # 9, Dec. 1990, p. 599.

"Fishing"

Jearl Walker, "1.135, Fly Casting", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 65.

"Football"

Albert A. Bartlett, "Television, Football, and Physics: Experiments in Kinematics", TPT, Vol. 43, # 6, p. 393, Sept. 2005.

Bernard J. Feldman, "Behind the Line of Scrimmage?", TPT, Vol. 41, # 2, Feb. 2004, p. 68.

Gregory A. DiLisi and Richard Rachik, "Author's Response", TPT, Vol. 42, # 2, Feb. 2004, p. 68.

Gregory A. DiLisi, Richard Rachik, "Monday Night Football: Physics Decides Controversial Call", TPT, Vol. 41, # 8, Nov. 2003, p. 454.

Norman F. Derby, Robert G. Fuller, Thomas A. Summers, "A Football Chase on Video", TPT, Vol. 35, # 6, Sept. 1997, p. 359.

James O'Connell, "Pursuit and Evasion Strategies in Football", TPT, Vol. 33, # 8, Nov. 1995, p. 516.

A. Tan, "More On Kicking a Football", TPT, Vol. 26, # 4, Apr. 1988, p. 200.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Response", TPT, Vol. 26, # 4, Apr. 1988, p. 200.

Ray F. Euclide, "Kicking a Football: Solution I", TPT, Vol. 25, # 5, May 1987, p. 263 - 264.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Response", TPT, Vol. 25, # 5, May 1987, p. 264.

John H. Harrison, "Kicking a Football: Solution II", TPT, Vol. 25, # 5, May 1987, p. 264.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Response", TPT, Vol. 25, # 5, May 1987, p. 264.

Peter J. Brancazio, "The Physics of Kicking a Football", TPT, Vol. 23, # 7, Oct. 1985, p. 403 - 407.

T. R. Sandin, "Getting Kicks in Physics", TPT, Vol. 23, # 1, Jan. 1985, p. 6, 62.

Professor Peter J. Brancazio, "Why Does a Football Keep its Axis Pointing Along Its Trajectory?", TPT, Vol. 23, # 9, Dec. 1985, p. 571 - 573.

Albert A. Bartlon, "Television, Football, and Physics: Experiments in Kinematics", TPT, Vol. 22, # 6, Sept. 1984, p. 386 - 387.

Terrence Toepker, "Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"", TPT, Vol. 54, #6, Sept. 2016, p. 338 - 339.

Jack Blumenthal, "Deflategate: Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure", TPT, Vol. 54, #6, Sept. 2016, p. 340 - 342.

Gregory A. DiLisi and Richard A. Rarick, "Bouncing Back From “Deflategate”", TPT, Vol. 53, #6, Sept. 2015, p. 341-346.

 

Robert G. Walls, and Gary Moore, "The Drag Force on an American Football", AJP, Vol. 71, # 8, Aug. 2003, p. 791.

 

David Cassilo, "The Helmet That Could Change Football", Popular Science, Sept. 2014, p. 15.

Tim Newcomb, "Anatomy of a Field Goal", Popular Mechanics, Feb. 2013, p. 62.

Jearl Walker, "1.112, Bullet Spin and Long Passes", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 55.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Why Should You Spiral a Football?", 1990 Cenco Catalog.

"Gliding"

Kenneth W. Ford, "The Physics of Soaring", TPT, Vol. 38, # 1, Jan. 2000, p. 8.

"Erratum", TPT, Vol. 38, # 3, Mar. 2000, p. 133.

"Golf"

Scott K. Perry, "The Proof Is in the Putting", TPT, Vol. 40, # 7, Oct. 2002, p. 411.

 

Josue Njock Libii, "Dimples and Drag", Experimental Demonstration of the Aerodynamics of Golf Balls", AJP, Vol. 75, # 8, p. 764, Aug. 2007.

Rod White, "On the Efficiency of the Golf Swing", AJP, Vol. 74, # 12, Dec. 2006, p. 1088.

Marco Gualtieri, Tadashi Tokieda, L. Advis-Gaete, B. Carry, E. Reffet, Claude Guthmann, "Erratum: 'Golfer's Dilemma, AJP, Vol. 74, # 6, June 2006", AJP, Vol. 74, # 12, Dec. 2006, p. 1149.

Marco Gualtieri, Tadashi Tokieda, L. Advis-Gaete, B. Carry, E. Reffet, Claude Guthmann, "Golfer's Dilemma", AJP, Vol. 74, # 6, June 2006.

A. Raymond Penner, "The Physics Of Golf: The Convex Face Of A Driver", AJP, Vol. 69, # 10, p. 1073, Oct. 2001.

A. Raymond Penner, "The Physics Of Golf: The Optimum Loft of a Driver", AJP, Vol. 69, # 5, p. 563, May 2001.

 

Rick Beyer, "The Happy Non-Hooker", The Greatest Science Stories Never Told", p. 196.

Rick Beyer, "Tee Time", The Greatest Science Stories Never Told", p. 116.

David Owen, "Golf Forever", Popular Mechanics, April 2015, p. 71.

Jearl Walker, "2.15, Golf-Ball Aerodynamics", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 88.

Jearl Walker, "1.36, Golfing", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 17.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Why Does a Golf Ball Have Dimples?", 1990 Cenco Catalog.

Bearman, Harvey, "Golf Ball Aerodynamics", Royal Aeronautical Society, 1976, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

"The Dynamics of a Golf Ball", Nature, 1910, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

"Gymnastics"

Jonas Contakos, Les G. Carlton, Bruce Thompson, Rick Suddaby, "The Physics of a Gymnastics Flight Element", TPT, Vol. 47, # 6, Sept. 2009, p. 355.

"Handball"

James G. Andrews, "A Mechanical Analysis of a Special Class of Rebound Phenomena", Medicine Science is Sports and Exercise, 1983, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

"Hockey"

Alain Hache, "A Cool Sport Full of Physics", TPT, Vol. 46, # 7, Oct. 2008, p. 398.

 

Jearl Walker, "1.78, A Controversial Goal", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 40.

"Horse Jumping - Equestrian"

Art Stinner, "The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping", TPT, Vol. 59, # 4, March 2014, p. 202.

"Horse Racing"

Graeme D. Putt, "Racetrack Physics", TPT, Vol. 39, # 1, Jan. 2001, p. 40.

Andre Bellemans, "More Racetrack Physics", TPT, Vol. 39, # 5, May 2001, p. 263.

Graeme D. Putt, "Response to Bellemans", TPT, Vol. 39, # 5, May 2001, p. 264.

"Horseshoes"

Jearl Walker, "1.83, Pitching Horseshoes", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 42.

"Javelin/Spear Throwing"

Richard A. Baugh, "Dynamics of Spear Throwing", AJP, Vol. 71, # 4, April 2003, p. 345.

 

Jearl Walker, "2.127, Javelin Throw", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 137.

"Juggling"

Bengt Magnusson, Bruce Tiemann, "Relabel Your Diagram", TPT, Vol. 28, # 3, Mar. 1990, p. 199.

Eric Kincanon, "Juggling and the Theorist",  TPT, Vol. 28, # 3, March, 1990, p. 221.

Bengt Magnusson, Bruce Tiemann, "The Physics of Juggling", TPT, Vol. 27, # 8, Nov. 1989, p. 584.

 

Jearl Walker, "1.25, Juggling", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 12.

"Jumping"

O. Helene, M. T. Yamashita, "A Unified Model for the Long and High Jump", AJP, Vol. 73, # 10, Oct. 2005, p. 906.

Andrew Rex, "Answer to Question # 58, Is a Good Long Jumper a Good High Jumper?", AJP, Vol. 69, # 2, p. 104, Feb. 2001.

Stephen Hanzely, "Answer to Question # 58, Is a Good Long Jumper a Good High Jumper?", AJP, Vol. 69, # 2, p. 105, Feb. 2001.

John D. Barrow, "Answer to Question # 58, Is a Good Long Jumper a Good High Jumper?", AJP, Vol. 69, # 2, p. 105, Feb. 2001.

Nicholas P. Linthorne, "Analysis Of Standing Vertical Jumps Using a Force Platform", AJP, Vol. 69, # 11, p. 1198, Nov. 2001.

"Karate - Martial Arts"

Shane Garrett Landry, Grant R. Denn, "Classroom Use of Martial Arts Exhibitions", TPT, Vol. 44, # 7, Oct. 2006, p. 430.

George A. Amann and Floyd T. Holt, "Karate Demonstration", TPT, Vol. 23, # 1, Jan. 1985, p. 40.

Haywood Blum, " Physics and the Art of Kicking and Punching", AJP, Vol. 45, # 1, Jan. 1977, p. 61.

Jearl D. Walker, "Karate Strikes", AJP, Vol. 43, # 10, Oct. 1975, p. 845.

 

Jearl Walker, "1.111, Judo, Aikido, and Olympic Wrestling", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 55.

Jearl Walker, "1.45, Karate", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 22.

Harvard Instructional Physics Labs, "Impulse, Work, and Energy", www.fas.harvard.edu/~scphys

Peter J.Brancazio, "How Do Karate Experts Break Boards With Their Bare Hands?", 1990 Cenco Catalog.

"Kayak"

Jearl Walker, "1.89, Kayak Roll", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 45.

"Kite Flying"

David Kagan and Michael McGie, "Some Physics of Kite Strings", TPT, Vol. 35, # 4, Apr. 1997, p. 202.

"Motocross"

Jeffrey R. Giles and Charles D. Ross, "The Physics of Motocross", TPT, Vol. 34, # 4, Apr. 1996, p. 220.

Jearl Walker, "1.81, Motorcycle Long Jumps", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 41.

"Ping-Pong"

Chris M Graney, "Taking a Swat at Physics with a Ping-Pong Paddle", TPT, Vol. 32, # 2, Feb. 1994, p. 94.

 

"Skills: Ping-Pong Spin", Popular Mechanics, Feb. 2015, p. 38.

"Push - Ups"

Saffar Arjmandi, Joseph G. Brinkman, and Terrence P. Toepker, "Physical Push-Ups", TPT, Vol. 41, # 6, Sept. 2003, p. 323.

Richard Summers, "On Physical Push-Ups", TPT, Vol. 41, # 8, Nov. 2003, p. 444.

Walter C. Connolly, "The Physics of Sport Activities", TPT, Vol. 16, # 6, Sept. 1978, p. 392.

"Racquetball"

Jearl Walker, "1.77, Racquetball Shots", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 39.

"Rock Climbing"

Jearl Walker, "1.60, Rock Climbing", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 29.

"Roller Skates & Roller Blades"

Eugenia Etkina, "Physics on Rollerblades", TPT, Vol. 36, # 1, Jan. 1998, p. 32. 

Peter Siegel, "Physics on a Roll", TPT, Vol. 36, # 3, Mar. 1998, p. 132. 

"Rowing" 

John D. Barrow, "Rowing and the Same-Sum Problem Have Their Moments", AJP, Vol. 78, # 7, p. 728, July 2010.

Katherine Kornei, "Robots Test the Physics of Rowing", APS News, Vol. 26, #1, Jan. 2017, p. 1.

"Rugby"

John Eric Golf, Trevor Davis Lipscombe, "Trying Physics: Analyzing the Motion of the Quickest Score in International Rugby", TPT, Vol. 53, # 2, Feb. 2015, p. 72.

Jearl Walker, "1.24, Legal Passes in Rugby", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 72.

"Running"

Thomas B. Greenslade Jr., "Student Power", TPT, Vol. 40, # 7, Oct. 2002, p. 443.

Don Wilke, "Running Starts", TPT, Vol. 40, # 9, Dec. 2002, p. 516.

Michael de Villiers, "How Does the Wind Affect Road-Running Achievement?", TPT, Vol. 29, # 5, May 1991, p. 286.

 

André Heck, Ton Ellermeijer, "Giving Students the Run of Sprinting Models", AJP, Vol. 77, # 11, Nov. 2009, p. 1028.

Chester R. Kyle, "Reduction of Wind Resistance and Power Output of Racing Cyclists and Runners Traveling in Groups", AJP, 1979, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

 

N. Look et al, "Capturing the Chaos of Running", Physics Today, Feb. 2014, p. 19.

A. J. Ward-Smith, "A Mathematical Theory of Running, Based on the First Law of Thermodynamics, and its Application to the Performance of World-Class Athletes", Journal of Biomechanics, 1984, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

Thomas A. McHahon, Peter R. Greene, "The Influence of Track Compliance On Running", Journal of Biomechanics, 1978, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers. 

"Sailing"

Bryon D. Anderson, "The Physics of Sailing", Physics Today, February 2008, p. 38.

Peter J.Brancazio, "How Does a Boat Sail into the Wind?", 1990 Cenco Catalog.

"Skateboarding"

Stewart Bridgman, Jr., and Donald F. Collins, "Human Body Motion in an Ollie", TPT, Vol. 30, # 8, Nov. 1992, p. 498.

Brian Broadt and Chris Necochea, Stephen P. Jacobsen, "What's an Ollie?", TPT, Vol. 29, # 8, Nov. 1991, p. 498.

William H. Robertson, "The Physics of Skateboarding: Making Science Relevant, Engaging, and Motivational", APS News, Vol. 26, #1, Jan. 2017.

 

Jearl Walker, "1.82, Skateboarding", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 42.

"Skiing & Ice Skating"

Krzysztof Rebilas, "Optimal Ski Jump", TPT, Vol. 51, # 2, Feb. 2013, p. 108.

"Surface Melting and Ice Skating", TPT, Vol. 39, # 4, Apr. 2001, p. 254.

Derek B. Swinson, "Ski Chairlift Experiments", TPT, Vol. 35, # 9, Dec. 1997, p. 528. 

Albert A. Bartlett, "What Happens When the Ski Lift Stops?", TPT, Vol. 35, # 7, Oct. 1997, p. 444.

Derek B. Swinson, "Ski Chairlift Physics", TPT, Vol. 34, # 8, Nov. 1996, p. 474.

James D. White, "The Role of Surface Melting in Ice Skating", TPT, Vol. 30, # 8, Nov. 1992, p. 495.

Derek B. Swinson, "Physics and Skiing", TPT, Vol. 30, # 8, Nov. 1992, p. 458.

Albert A. Bartlett, "Physics and Skiing Record", TPT, Vol. 28, # 2, Feb. 1990, p. 72.

Thomas Rossing, "Why Do Skiers Lean Forward (or Backward)?", TPT, Vol. 26, # 2, Feb. 1988, p. 71.

F. P. Gram, "More Skiers Learning Forward", TPT,  Vol. 26, # 2, Feb. 1988, p. 71.

Albert A. Bartlett, Paul Hewitt,  "Response", TPT, Vol. 26, # 2, Feb. 1988, p. 72. 

Phillip W. Gronseth and Marc A. Hallada, "Skiing Revisited - To Lean or Not to Lean?", TPT, Vol. 26, # 9, Dec. 1988, p. 584.

Albert A. Bartlett and Paul G. Hewitt.  "Why the Ski Instructor Says, 'Lean Forward!'",  TPT, Vol. 25, # 1, p. 28, January 1987.

Albert A. Bartlett, Paul G. Hewitt, "Why the Ski Instructors Says, "Learn Forward!", TPT, Vol. 25, # 1, Jan. 1987, p. 28.

Paul Hickman, "Skiing in the Classroom", TPT, Vol. 25, # 6, Sept. 1987, p. 353.

Rob Hignell, Colin Terry, "Why Do Downhill Racers Pre-jump?", TPT, Vol. 23, # 8, Nov. 1985, p. 487 - 488.

Richard Parker, Arthur Eisenkraft, Angelo Armenti, Jr., "How Can a Downhill Skier Move Faster Than a Sky Diver?", TPT, Vol. 22, # 2, Feb. 1984, p. 109.

Derek B. Swinson, "Skiing and Angular Momentum: A Proposed Experiment", TPT, Vol. 11, # 7, Oct. 1973, p. 415.

J. A. Eades, "Missing the Point", TPT, Vol. 11, # 9, Dec. 1973, p. 517.

John I. Shonle, "The Author Replies", TPT, Vol. 11, # 9, Dec. 1973, p. 517.

John I. Shonle and Douglas L. Nordick, "The Physics of Ski Turns", TPT, Vol. 10, # 9, Dec. 1972, p. 491.

 

David B. Bahr, W. Tad Pfeffer, and Raymond C. Browning, "The Surprising Motion of Ski Moguls", Physics Today, November 2009, p. 68.

 

Rick Beyer, "Head Case", The Greatest Science Stories Never Told, p. 158.

Jearl Walker, "1.95, Spinning Ice-Skater", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 47.

Jearl Walker, "4.34, Ice-Skating and Making a Snowball", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 191.

Jearl Walker, "2.8, Speed of a Downhill Skier", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 86.

Jearl Walker, "2.7, Ski Jumping", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 85.

Jearl Walker, "4.33, Skiing", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 191.

Jearl Walker, "1.101, Skiing", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 50.

Jearl Walker, "1.163, Jumps During Downhill Ski Race", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 75.

Peter J.Brancazio, "How do Downhill Skiers Improve Their Performance?", 1990 Cenco Catalog.

"Skydiving"

Glenn Wagner and Robert Wood, "Skydiver Survives Death Plunge" (and physics that helped)", TPT, Vol. 34, # 8, Nov. 1996, p. 543.

John A. Varriano, "Energy Diagrams with Drag Forces", TPT, Vol. 34, # 9, Dec. 1996, p. 546.

Richard Parker, Arthur Eisenkraft, Angelo Armenti, Jr., "How Can a Downhill Skier Move Faster than a Sky Diver?", TPT, Vol. 22, # 2, Feb. 1984, p. 109.

"Snowboarding"

Derek B.Swinson, "Physics and Snowboarding", TPT, Vol. 32, # 9, Dec. 1994, p. 530.

 

Michael J O'Shea, "Snowboard Jumping, Newton's Second Law and the Force on Landing", Physics Education, Vol. 39, # 4, p. 335.

"Soccer"

Armando Vieira, "Comment on 'Kick-Off'", TPT, Vol. 44, # 7, Oct. 2006, p. 406.

Armando Vieira, "Kick-Off", TPT, Vol. 44, # 5, May 2006, p. 286.

Ralf Widenhorn, "Hitting the Goalpost: Calculating the Fine Line Between Winning and Losing a Penalty Shootout", TPT, Vol. 54, #7, Oct. 2016, p. 434-438.

 

J.E. Goff, Matt J. Carré, "Trajectory Analysis of a Soccer Ball", AJP, Vol. 77, # 11, Nov. 2009, p. 1020.

 

John Eric Goff, "Power and Spin in the Beautiful Game", Physics Today, July 2010, p. 62.

 

Jearl Walker, "2.14, Veering a Football Around a Defensive Wall", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 88.

"Somersaults"

Jearl Walker, "1.98, Quadruple Somersault", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 49.

"Squash"

Gareth J. Lewis, J. Cris Arnold, Iwan W. Griffiths, "The Dynamic Behavior of Squash Balls", AJP, Vol. 79, # 3, March 2011, p. 291.

"Stilts"

David J. Smith, "Friction and the Balanced Mocko Jumbie", TPT, Vol. 35, # 8, Nov. 1997, p. 466.

"Surfing"

Ronald Edge,  "Surf Physics",  TPT, Vol. 39, # 5, p. 272, May 2001.

 

Takeshi Sugimoto, "Mechanics of the Surf Skimmer Revisited", AJP, Vol. 71, # 2, Feb. 2003, p. 144.

 

PassmoreLab, "The Physics of Surfing - Teacher's Resource Guide", Greg Passmore, 2009.

Jearl Walker, "2.69, Surfing", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 110.

Jearl Walker, "2.130, Surf Skimmer", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 138.

"Breaking The Waves: Uncovering the Ancient Heritage-and Religious Origins-of Surfing", The Truth about History, Readers Digest, ISBN 0-7621-0523-2.

"Swimming"

H. Richard Crane, "Bad Timing in Swimming Races: A Physicist to the Rescue", TPT, Vol. 37, # 2, Feb. 1999, p. 90.

Laurette McCormick, "Application of Physics to Synchronized Swimming", TPT, Vol. 35, # 4, Apr. 1997, p. 140.

P.L.Page, "The Mechanics of Swimming and Diving", TPT, Vol. 14, # 2, , Feb. 1976, p. 72.

"Swinging"

Donald G. Bruns, "Synchronized Swinging", TPT, Vol. 26, # 4, Apr. 1988, p. 220.

"Tennis"

Derek Christie, "Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem", TPT, Vol. 52, # 4, April 2014, p. 208.

Rod Cross, "The Dual Function of Sand on a Clay Tennis Court", TPT, Vol. 39, # 6, Sept. 2001, p. 330.

John Eng and Thomas Lietman, "Measuring the Velocity of Tennis Serve", TPT, Vol. 32, # 3, March 1994, p. 168.

Howard Brody, "The Tennis-Ball Bounce Test", TPT, Vol. 28, # 6, Sept. 1990, p. 407.

Howard Brody, "The Moment of Inertia of a Tennis Racket", TPT, Vol. 23, # 4, Apr. 1985, p. 213 - 216.

Howard Brody, "That's How the Ball Bounces", TPT, Vol. 22, # 8, Nov. 1984, p. 494 - 497.

"The Dzhanibekov effect or tennis racket theorem", TPT, Vol. 53, #7, Oct. 2015, p. 447.

 

Rod Cross, "A Double Pendulum Model of Tennis Strokes", AJP, Vol. 79, # 5, May 2011, p. 470.

Rod Cross, "Bounce of a Spinning Ball Near Normal Incidence", AJP, Vol. 73, # 10, Oct. 2005, p. 914.

Rod Cross, "Why Bows Get Stiffer And Racquets Get Softer When The Strings Are Added", AJP, Vol. 69, # 8, p. 907, Aug. 2001.

Rod Cross, "The Coefficient of Restitution for Collisions of Happy Balls, Unhappy Balls, and Tennis Balls",  AJP, Vol. 68, # 11, p. 1025, Nov. 2000. 

H. Brody, "Physics of the Tennis Racket II: The "Sweet Spot"", AJP, 1981, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

H. Brody, "Physics of the Tennis Racket", AJP, 1979, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

 

David Cassilo, "Making a Racquet", Popular Science, June 2013, p. 24.

Jearl Walker, "1.79, Tennis", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 40.

Rodney Cross, "Tennis Physics, Anyone?", Physics Today, September 2008, p. 84. 

Jearl Walker, "2.13, Air Drag on Tennis Balls", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 88.

Tom Colligan, "Anatomy of a Serve", Popular Mechanics, Sept. 2007, p. 98.

Peter J. Brancazio, "Why Does A Tennis Racket Have A "Sweet Spot"?", 1990 Cenco Catalog.

"Tightrope"

Robert B. Prigo, "Classroom Tightrope Walking", AJP, Vol. 50, # 5, May 1982, p. 471.

Jearl Walker, "1.91, Tightrope Walk", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 46.

"Track And Field"

Kostas Vourlias, Fanny Seroglou, "Professor Usain Bolt Welcomes You to the Schoolyard: Physics for Champions", TPT, Vol. 54, # 1, Jan. 2016, p. 45.

A.J. Shinabargar, Matt Hellrich, Blane Baker, "What Makes Usain Bolt Unique as a Sprinter?", TPT, Vol. 48, # 6, September 2010, p. 365.

Robert J. Dufresne, William J, Gerace, and William J, Leonard, "Springbok: The Physics of Jumping", TPT, Vol. 39, # 2, Feb. 2001, p. 109.

Ajun Tan and John Zumerchik, "Kinematics of the Long Jump", TPT, Vol. 38, # 3, March 2000, p. 147.

Fernando Scarlassara, "Long Comments on the Long Jump-I", TPT, Vol. 38, # 6, Sept. 2000, p. 330.

A. Tan, "Tan's reply to Scarlassara's Comments",  TPT, Vol. 38, # 6, Sept. 2000, p. 332.

Fernando L. Rodriguez, "Long Comments on the Long Jump-II", TPT, Vol. 38, # 6, Sept. 2000, p. 332.

A. Tan, "Tan's Reply to Rodriguez",  TPT, Vol. 38, # 6, Sept. 2000, p. 333.

Glenn Wagner, "The 100-Meter Dash: Theory and Experiment", TPT, Vol. 36, # 3, Mar. 1998, p. 144.

Alfonso Diaz-Jimenez, "The Standing High Jump", TPT, Vol. 31, # 9, Dec. 1993, p. 534.

Richard Myers, "Using Carl Lewis's Split Times for Introducing Kinematics", TPT, Vol. 30, # 2, Feb. 1992, p. 89.

Howard Brody, "Measuring the Softness of an Athletic Surface", TPT, Vol. 30, # 1, Jan. 1992, p. 28.

Stan Jakuba, "Effect of Exercise Expressed in Joules and Watts", TPT, Vol. 29, # 8, Nov. 1991, p. 512.

Van E. Neie, "Analysis of Running on Banked and Unbanked Curves", TPT, Vol. 19, # 5, May 1981, p. 321.

Mario Iona, "Banked Curve", TPT, Vol. 19, # 5, May 1981, p. 516.

 

Eric Gentile, "Comment on 'How Fast Could Usain Bolt Have Run? A Dynamical Study'", AJP, Vol. 78, # 6, June 2010, p. 646.

O. Helene, M. T. Yamashita, "The Force, Power, and Energy of the 100 Meter Sprint", AJP, Vol. 78, # 3, March 2010, p. 307.

H. K. Eriksen, J. R. Kristiansen, Ř. Langangen, I.K. Wehus, "How Fast Could Usain Bolt Have Run? A Dynamical Study", AJP, Vol. 77, # 3, March 2009, p. 224.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, D. Balzarini, "Maximizing the Range of the Shot Put Without Calculus", AJP, Vol. 50, # 2, Feb. 1982, p. 181.

Cliff Frohlich, "Aerodynamic Effect on Discus Flight", AJP, 1981, Physics of Sports Selected Reprints, American Association of Physics Teachers, 2006. 

D. B. Lichtenberg and J. G. Wills", "Maximizing the Range of the Shot Put", AJP, Vol. 46, # 5, May 1978, p. 546.

Herbert Lin, "Newtonian Mechanics and the Human Body: Some Estimates of Performance", AJP, Vol. 46, # 1, Jan. 1978, p. 15.

 

Jearl Walker, "1.26, Pole Vaulting", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 12.

Jearl Walker, "1.162, Shot Put and Hammer Throw", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 74.

Jearl Walker, "2.126, Throwing a Discus", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 137.

Jearl Walker, "2.127, Javelin Throw", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 137.

Jearl Walker, "1.38, The High Jump and the Long Jump", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 17.

"Volleyball"

F. Behroozi, "Physics of Volleyball: Spiking with a Purpose", TPT, Vol. 36, # 5, May 1998, p. 280.

"Walking"

Aaron Dumont and Chris Waltham, "Walking", TPT, Vol. 35, # 6, Sept. 1997, p. 372.

"Wiffle Ball"

Jenn Rossmann, Andrew Rau, "An Experimental Study of Wiffle Ball Aerodynamics", AJP, Vol. 75, # 12, p. 1099, Dec. 2007.

 

Bjorn Carey, "A Wiffle Ball Pitch", Popular Science, April 2014, p. 42.

"Wrestling"

Mark Carle, "Olympic Wrestling and Angular Momentum", TPT, Vol. 26, # 2, Feb., 1988, p. 92.

 



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